Friday, September 16, 2011

Toyota Corolla




Toyota Corolla 1966

For over 40 years, the Toyota Corolla has been a reliable, if unsexy, way to get around. As one of the first cars to justify the need for a sixth number on its odometer, buyers didn’t hesitate when Toyota brought the car to the U.S. in 1968. They made it the No. 2-selling import just two years later -- and it didn’t stop there. Corolla was the world’s best-selling car from 1974 to 1977. With tens of millions of Corollas on the world’s roads, early impressions of the new 2009 model suggest it could be the best yet, making it one of the all-time Japanese cars around.

曖昧さ回避 トヨタカローラは、この項目へ転送されています。この項目では主にカローラセダンについて記述しています。販売店については「トヨタカローラ店」を、派生車種については「#派生車種」を、その他の用法については「カローラ」をご覧ください。




40年以上にわたり、トヨタカローラの周りを取得する信頼性の高い、場合unsexy、道となっている。その走行距離計の6番目の数の必要性を正当化するために最初の車の一つとして、買い手は、トヨタが1968年に米国に車を持って来た時に躊躇しなかった。彼らは、わずか2年後に2番売れているのインポートもの - それはそこに停止しなかった。カローラは、1974年から1977年までに世界で最も売れ車だった。世界の道路、新しい2009年モデルの初期の印象でカローラの数千万人は、それが周りにすべての時間の日本車の一つとなって、まだベストになる可能性が示唆されたと。

Friday, September 2, 2011

Mercedes 124

W124 is the Mercedes-Benz internal chassis-designation for the 1985 to 1995 version of the Mercedes-Benz E-Class. The W124 models replaced the W123 models after 1985 and were superseded by the W210 E-Class after 1995.

The W124 is a mid-sized vehicle platform. Due to the high cost of German engineering and build quality, the W124 was designed to last many miles, with awards actually given and worn by high mileage versions.

Front suspension uses a separate spring and damper with a rubber top mount. The rear suspension of the W124 features the Mercedes multi-link axle introduced in 1982 with the Mercedes 190 and which is now standard on many modern cars. Estate cars (and optionally, saloons and coupes) had Citroen-like self-leveling rear suspension with suspension struts rather than shock absorbers, gas-filled suspension spheres to provide damping and an under bonnet pressurizing pump. Unlike the traditional Citroën application Mercedes opted for a fixed ride height and employed rear coil springs to maintain the static ride height when parked.

The R129 was based on the W124 platform, in return W124 was equipped in one of the roadster's engines, in its 500E version..

Much of the 124's engineering and many of its features were advanced automotive technology at its introduction, incorporating innovations that have been adopted throughout the industry.[1] It had one of the lowest coefficient of drag (Cd) of any vehicle of the time (0.28 for the 200/200D model for the European market with 185/65 R15 tires) due to its aerodynamic body, that included plastic molding for the undercarriage to streamline airflow beneath the car, reducing fuel consumption and wind noise. It had a single windscreen wiper that had an eccentric mechanism at its base that extended the wiper's reach to the top corners of the windscreen (more than if it had traveled in a simple arc). The saloon/sedan, coupés and convertibles had optional rear headrests that would fold down remotely to improve rearward visibility when required. This feature was not available for the T-model because of its specific layout (no space to store the retractable headrests), but the station-wagon serially came with a "neighbour-friendly" rear door that was pulled in the shut-position silently and automatically by a sensor-controlled servomotor. With the exception of the 200, which was equipped with a Stromberg or Pierburg carburetor but was not available to the United States, fuel injection was standard, and the engines incorporated features that maximised performance. The most notable such feature was the addition of an oxygen sensor in the exhaust system which, in conjunction with a semi-electronic fuel injection system, could make the engine run more efficiently. This improved fuel consumption while simultaneously meeting stricter emission regulations. Mercedes-Benz's four-wheel drive system, the 4Matic was first introduced on the W124 in 1986.

The estate cars (model designation S124) came in 5- or 7-seat models, the 7-seater having a rear-facing bench seat that folded flush luggage compartment cover and an optional (in the US until 1994) retractable cargo net. In the US 7-seat models were standard, 5-seat models were not available. The S124 estate continued in production alongside the new W210 until the S210 estate launched more than a year later. A two-door coupe version was also built, with the model designation C124.

Mercedes launched a cabriolet (convertible) version in Europe in 1991, the 300 CE 24V, and in the UK (RHD) and Japan (LHD), the 320CE, and North America, the 300CE, in 1992. These versions were re-designated as the E320 in 1993, complemented by the less powerful, but less expensive E220 in 1993, and the mainland-Europe-only E 200 in 1994. Mercedes brought the E320 cabriolet (convertible) to the USA and Japan from 1993-1995. There were 68 E36 AMG cabriolets built from 1993 until 1996 (54 LHD and 14 RHD) and even fewer 300CE 3.4 AMG from 1992 until 1993 to complement the also rare E36 AMG coupe, saloon (RHD only) and estate. The E320, E220, and E200 cabriolets ceased production in 1997.

SsangYong Motor Company of Korea licensed the W124 design and continues to produce a stretched version of the W124 as the Chairman, with a Ssangyong badge. It has a 2.9 m (110 in) wheelbase and 3.2 L Mercedes straight-6 M104 engine. Chairman currently has 2.3 L (M111), 2.8 L (M104), and 3.2 L (M104) engines in its product line-ups. SsangYong Chairman has developed a 3.6 L version of M104 engine recently for its high-end Chairman line up. The engine is called XGi360.

The W124 chassis was the basis of Mercedes' line of midsize cars from 1986 into the mid-1990s. The W124 body was the successor to the W123 line and was the first time that a midsize Mercedes vehicle was actually the midlevel model in the brand's lineup, as the 190E compact-size line of cars was now the entry-level offering from the German automaker.

2.5 Engine Design

Mercedes offered multiple gasoline-powered engines and a choice of five- or six-cylinder diesel engines in the W124-bodied E-Class. The 2.5 model is powered by a five-cylinder diesel engine with an inline configuration and 2.5 liters of displacement. This 10-valve engine has a 3.43-inch bore, 3.31-inch stroke and a high compression ratio, standard for diesel engines, of 22 to 1. A Bosch fuel delivery system sends fuel to the cast-iron block.
2.5 Engine Output

The Mercedes W124-bodied E-Class's inline-5 cylinder engine was offered in naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions. The naturally aspirated variant has a maximum power output ranging from 89 to 93 horsepower at 4,600 rpm and 114 to 117 lb.-feet of torque at 2,800 rpm. The forced-air induction inline-five with the turbocharger generates between 120 and 123 horsepower at 4,600 rpm and between 165 and 170 lb.-feet of torque at 2,400 rpm.

The Mercedes W124 is a midsize, front-engined, rear-wheel drive sedan with four-doors and seating for five. This vehicle sits on a 110.2-inch wheelbase. Overall body length of this German saloon is 186.6 inches with a width measuring 68.5 inches and a height ranging from 56.2 to 57.1 inches.
Suspension, Brakes, Wheels

The Mercedes W124 body's suspension duties are relegated to a McPherson strut front-end with a double-wishbone design and anti-roll bars. This car's rear suspension is a multilink design, the first for Mercedes, that would later find its way into the whole range of the German automaker's vehicles. The W124's 15-inch rims are wrapped with a set of 195/65R15-size tires with disc brakes handling braking duties.
Standard Equipment

The Mercedes W124-bodied E-Class offers driver's airbag, antilock brakes, power windows, power locks, headlight washers and security alarm as standard equipment.

W124 er en Mercedes-Benz intern chassis-betegnelse for 1985-1995-versjonen av Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse. Den W124 modellene erstattet W123 modeller etter 1985 og ble erstattet av W210 E-klasse etter 1995.
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Wascomat manuell

W124 ist die Mercedes-Benz interne Chassis-Bezeichnung für die von 1985 bis 1995-Version des Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse. Das W124 Modelle ersetzt die W123 Modelle nach 1985 und wurden von der W210 E-Klasse ersetzt nach 1995.
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Wascomat manuellen

W124 è il Mercedes-Benz interno telaio designazione per la versione 1985-1995 della Mercedes-Benz E-Class. I modelli W124 ha sostituito il W123 modelli dopo il 1985 e sono stati sostituiti dalle W210 Classe E dopo il 1995.
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Wascomat manuale

W124 является Mercedes-Benz внутренних шасси с обозначением 1985 по 1995 год версия Mercedes-Benz E-Class.W124 модели W123 заменили модели после 1985 года и были заменены W210 E-класса после 1995 года.
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Wascomat руководстве

هي الداخلية مرسيدس بنز الشاسيه - التعيين لإصدار 1985-1995 من فئة - E من مرسيدس بنز. استبدال نماذج W124 W123 نماذج بعد عام 1985 وكانت حلت محلها W210 الفئة E بعد عام 1995.
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دليل Wascomat

W124 is de Mercedes-Benz interne chassis-aanduiding voor de 1985-1995 versie van de Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse. De W124 modellen van de W123 modellen vervangen na 1985 en werden vervangen door de W210 E-Klasse na 1995.
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Wascomat handleiding